Causes of fever

Woman and baby with a fever

How does fever occur?

Fever occurs when the hypothalamus resets the normal temperature point to a higher level. Though the body is still working to balance the heat produced with that which it releases, since the set-point is now higher, the body temperature rises.1

The increase in body temperature occurs due to various reasons such as release of certain chemicals called cytokines in response to invading microorganisms, cancer cells or any other foreign matter. It is also in response to the body producing white blood cells and antibodies to protect it from the invading foreign matter.2

Common causes of fever

Child with fever

Infectious causes of fever3,4

Any form of infection can cause the body to respond with a fever. These include viral and bacterial infections. Some examples are:

Viral infections

Common cold



Dengue fever


Bacterial infections


Bacterial pneumonia


Skin infections

Urinary tract infections

Otitis media (ear infections)

Eye infections

  • Non-infectious causes of fever1

    Woman with a fever

    Though it is more common for a person to develop fever because of an infection, there are non-infectious causes of fever. These include:

    Auto-immune diseases

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    Rheumatoid arthritis




    Drug induced

    Sulfa drugs

    Some anti-epileptic medications

    Antiretroviral medicines (for treatment of HIV)

    Some antiarrhythmic medications (e.g. amiadarone)

    Crystal-induced arthropathies Gout (accumulation of uric acid in the joints)
    Thromboembolism Deep vein thrombosis
    Abdominal conditions Acute pancreatitis
    Central nervous system conditions Stroke (haemorrhagic and ischaemic)

Understanding fever

Signs and symptoms

Fever overview

Find out the basics about fever.


Signs and symptoms

How do they present?

Refresh your knowledge on the signs and symptoms of fever and learn about “red flag” symptoms that indicate a referral to the doctor.

Signs and symptoms


What can you recommend to your patients for fever?

Find out more about both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments for fever in both adults and children.


Learn more

Panadol Actifast pack shot

Panadol Advance

Panadol Advance is a mild analgesic and antipyretic.5

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Learning module for pharmacists

A useful tool specifically tailored for pharmacists to treat children’s fever and pain using appropriate over-the-counter products.

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Panadol for children pack shot

Panadol Extra

Panadol Extra is recommended for use in analgesic relief of mild to moderate pain and symptoms of cold, influenza, sore throat, feverishness and feverish colds.6

Learn more